Matthew Griffin, described as “The Adviser behind the Advisers” and a “Young Kurzweil,” is the founder and CEO of the 311 Institute, a global futures think tank working between the dates of 2020 to 2070, and is an award winning futurist, and author of “Codex of the Future.” Regularly featured in the global media, including AP, BBC, CNBC, Discovery, RT, and Viacom, Matthew’s ability to identify, track, and explain the impacts of hundreds of revolutionary emerging technologies on global culture, industry and society, is unparalleled. Recognised for the past six years as one of the world’s foremost futurists, innovation and strategy experts Matthew is an international speaker who helps governments, investors, multi-nationals and regulators around the world envision, build and lead an inclusive, sustainable future. A rare talent Matthew’s recent work includes mentoring several Education and Lunar XPrize teams, building the first generation of biological computers and re-envisioning global education with the G20, and helping the world’s largest conglomerates ideate the next 20 years of intelligent devices and machines. Matthew's clients include three Prime Ministers and several governments, including the G7, Accenture, Bain & Co, BCG, BOA, Blackrock, Bentley, Credit Suisse, Dell EMC, Dentons, Deloitte, Du Pont, E&Y, HPE, Huawei, JPMorgan Chase, KPMG, McKinsey, PWC, Qualcomm, SAP, Samsung, Sopra Steria, UBS, and many more.
WHY THIS MATTERS IN BRIEF
Every year in the UK over 36,000 cattle that contract TB are culled, but now that might end up being a thing of the past.
Scientists in China claim to have genetically engineered cows that have heightened resistance to tuberculosis. Eleven calves were raised with the gene using a modified version of the revolutionary CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technique called CRISPR-Cas9n. The NRAMP1 gene made the calves more resistant to TB, showing less signs of infection in blood samples, according to a paper published in the journal Genome Biology.
The researchers inserted NRAMP1 into a type of cell called a fibroblast from dairy cows. When the gene was established in the genome of the cell, they transferred the nucleus with the updated genetic material to a dairy cow’s egg cell. They then created an embryo using sperm from a dairy cow before implanting the embryo into a female cow’s uterus.
The researchers say that the genetically modified calves did not show any unwanted side effects from the process. They suggest that the CRISPR-Cas9n technique may be better for inserting genes into mammals than other versions of CRISPR technology.
The difficulty in using established CRISPR techniques in mammals is finding the right place to insert the new gene, study author Yong Zhang of Northwest A&F University in Shaanxi, China said in a statement.
“You have to hunt through the genome, looking for a region that you think will have the least impact on other genes that are in close proximity,” he said, “we employed a meticulous and methodological approach to identify the best suited region for gene insertion, which we show has no detectable off target effects on the bovine genome.”
The researchers say that this location could be a good target site for other genes besides NRAMP1.
“Our work has led to the discovery of a useful position in the bovine genome that can be targeted with this gene-editing technology to successfully insert new genes that benefit agricultural livestock.”
However, some researchers are doubtful about whether or not the transgenic cattle in the study really have resistance to TB. Alan Archibald, head of genetics and genomics at the Roslin Institute at the University of Edinburgh, said that only some markers of resistance had shown up in the tests on the transgenic cows.
“It’s not clear to me that the authors have demonstrated that the transgenic cows are resistant to TB. They see some difference between the genetically modified animals and the controls,” said Archibald.
In order to get a full measure of how NRAMP1 was affecting the cattle, it would be necessary to allow the disease to fully progress in the controls and when they died see how their disease lesions in the lungs compared with the genetically modified cattle.
In principle, however, Archibald said that gene editing was a good way to try to tackle the problem of TB in cattle.
“I personally believe gene editing is an appropriate technique to use in farmed animal species, and there will be some useful socioeconomic benefits that can flow from that in terms of food security,” he said.
Today in the UK there is no treatment for cattle with TB and any animals that have the disease are culled – with some 36,000 cows being culled in 2015 alone, in order to limit the spread of the disease. However, and as if that wasn’t enough, today in the South West of England the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) also controversially authorise the culling of thousands of badgers, carriers of the disease to prevent it spreading to cattle, so if the new technique passes peer review it might end up saving more than just cows.