Weather bombs could help scientists better predict earthquakes

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Little heard S-waves are the key to seeing inside our planet

Small, intense storms known as “weather bombs” may trigger rare tremors deep within the Earth, offering scientists a new way to study the mysterious structure and inner workings of the planet, according to a new study.

A “weather bomb” is an extra-tropical storm in which the central pressure intensifies rapidly. These storms produce very strong winds that cause the ocean to swell, generating powerful waves. Some of the wave energy from these storms interacts with the seafloor, causing wave-generated seismic activity.

Known as microseisms, these seismic waves are detectable anywhere in the world, because they penetrate the Earth deeply and can be observed at faraway land seismic stations, the researchers said.

However, observations and analysis of microseismic activity have focused mostly on P waves — the first set of waves in an earthquake that deliver a sharp jolt — because of their larger amplitudes. This gives scientists only a narrow view of the Earth’s structure, because P waves typically travel in straight lines.

 

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In their new study, the scientists detected so-called S wave microseisms, which travel much more slowly and curve through the ground but are generally more difficult to observe. The previously unobserved S waves were generated under a weather bomb between Greenland and Iceland in December 2014.

The researchers detected both P-wave and S-wave microseisms triggered by the severe North Atlantic storm at their station in Japan. In their paper, the authors described the direction and distance to the waves’ origins.

Mapping the microseisms provides insight into the planet’s deep structure. As seismic energy from the weather-bomb storm travels through the deep Earth, the planet’s interior structure is revealed, the researchers said. This is especially beneficial in areas where such monitoring is limited — such as the oceans.

 

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“We would like to explore the Earth’s interior beneath the storm in oceanic areas, where no earthquakes and no stations exist,” said study co-author Kiwamu Nishida, a professor at the Earthquake Research Institute at the University of Tokyo.

With more acute observations of these storms and the microseisms they cause, scientists can better understand the Earth’s internal structure. And understanding the precise locations of P waves and S waves and how they move can also help scientists learn how the seismicity occurs, the researchers explained in their paper.

“Delineation of the source locations and energy partition of the seismic wave components are key to understanding the excitation mechanisms,” the authors wrote. As such, the findings could contribute to more accurate detection of earthquakes and oceanic storms.

About author

Matthew Griffin

Matthew Griffin, described as “The Adviser behind the Advisers” and a “Young Kurzweil,” is the founder and CEO of the World Futures Forum and the 311 Institute, a global Futures and Deep Futures consultancy working between the dates of 2020 to 2070, and is an award winning futurist, and author of “Codex of the Future” series. Regularly featured in the global media, including AP, BBC, CNBC, Discovery, RT, and Viacom, Matthew’s ability to identify, track, and explain the impacts of hundreds of revolutionary emerging technologies on global culture, industry and society, is unparalleled. Recognised for the past six years as one of the world’s foremost futurists, innovation and strategy experts Matthew is an international speaker who helps governments, investors, multi-nationals and regulators around the world envision, build and lead an inclusive, sustainable future. A rare talent Matthew’s recent work includes mentoring Lunar XPrize teams, re-envisioning global education and training with the G20, and helping the world’s largest organisations envision and ideate the future of their products and services, industries, and countries. Matthew's clients include three Prime Ministers and several governments, including the G7, Accenture, Bain & Co, BCG, Credit Suisse, Dell EMC, Dentons, Deloitte, E&Y, GEMS, Huawei, JPMorgan Chase, KPMG, Lego, McKinsey, PWC, Qualcomm, SAP, Samsung, Sopra Steria, T-Mobile, and many more.

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