Matthew Griffin, described as “The Adviser behind the Advisers” and a “Young Kurzweil,” is the founder and CEO of the 311 Institute, a global futures think tank working between the dates of 2020 to 2070, and is an award winning futurist, and author of “Codex of the Future.” Regularly featured in the global media, including AP, BBC, CNBC, Discovery, RT, and Viacom, Matthew’s ability to identify, track, and explain the impacts of hundreds of revolutionary emerging technologies on global culture, industry and society, is unparalleled. Recognised for the past six years as one of the world’s foremost futurists, innovation and strategy experts Matthew is an international speaker who helps governments, investors, multi-nationals and regulators around the world envision, build and lead an inclusive, sustainable future. A rare talent Matthew’s recent work includes mentoring several Education and Lunar XPrize teams, building the first generation of biological computers and re-envisioning global education with the G20, and helping the world’s largest conglomerates ideate the next 20 years of intelligent devices and machines. Matthew's clients include three Prime Ministers and several governments, including the G7, Accenture, Bain & Co, BCG, BOA, Blackrock, Bentley, Credit Suisse, Dell EMC, Dentons, Deloitte, Du Pont, E&Y, HPE, Huawei, JPMorgan Chase, KPMG, McKinsey, PWC, Qualcomm, SAP, Samsung, Sopra Steria, UBS, and many more.
WHY THIS MATTERS IN BRIEF
The computers of the future won’t just be silicon, they’ll be biological, chemical, liquid, photonic and quantum, for starters, and they’ll all need new components.
In modern day computer science information is stored in binary Bits, and in quantum computer science, information is stored in something called quantum bits, or Qubits. But as we race to develop new computer platforms, from biological and DNA computers to chemical, neuromorphic and even liquid computers, a team from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences (ICP PAS) in Poland have managed to prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information, and eventually it could pave the way for new ultra powerful, ultra energy efficient chemical computers. The chemical bit, or “Chit,” as they’re calling it, is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which “oscillatory reactions occur” and, as the team explain, creating one was incredibly complex so if you want to know how it was done get your geek head on, if not then just take it from me they did it.
In typical electronic memory, ones and zeros are recorded, stored and read by physical phenomena such as the flow of electricity or the change in electrical or magnetic properties, and now the team from IPC PAS, which was led by Dr. Konrad Gizynski and Prof. Jerzy Gorecki have demonstrated the same concept but using solely chemical phenomenon.
The chemical foundation of this form of memory is something called the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction which is an “oscillatory” reaction, and when one cycle ends, the reagents necessary to start the next cycle are reconstituted in the chemical solution.
Before the reaction stops, there are usually several tens to hundreds of oscillations which are accompanied by a regular and predictable change in the colour of the solution caused by Ferroin – the reaction catalyst. The second catalyst used by the team was Ruthenium. The introduction of Ruthenium causes the BZ reaction to become photosensitive, which means that when the solution is illuminated by blue light it ceases to oscillate and it’s this feature makes it possible to control the course of the reaction.
“Our idea for the chemical storage of information was simple. From our previous experiments, we knew that when Belousov-Zhabotinsky droplets are in contact, chemical fronts can propagate from droplet to droplet. So we decided to look for the smallest droplet systems in which excitations could take place in several ways, with at least two being stable. We could then assign one sequence of excitations a logic value of 0, the other 1, and in order to switch between them and force a particular change of memory state, we could use light,” explained Gorecki.
The experiments were carried out in a container filled with a thin layer of lipid solution in a type of oil called Decane. Small amounts of oscillating solution added to the system with a pipette then formed droplets and these were positioned above the ends of optical fibres brought to the base of the container. To prevent the droplets from sliding off the optical fibres, each was immobilized by several rods protruding from the base of the container.
The search for the right formulation first began with a study of pairs of coupled droplets in which four types, or modes, of oscillation, can take place – droplet one excites droplet two, droplet two excites droplet one, both droplets excite each other simultaneously, both excite each other alternately.
“In paired droplet systems, most often, one droplet excited the other. Unfortunately, only one mode of this type was always stable, and we needed two,” says Gizynski. “Both droplets are made up of the same solution, but they never have exactly the same dimensions. As a result, in each droplet, the chemical oscillations occur at a slightly different pace. In such cases, the droplet oscillating more slowly begins to adjust its rhythm to its faster ‘friend.’ Even if it were possible with light to force the slower oscillating droplet to excite the faster oscillating droplet, the system would return to the mode in which the faster droplet stimulated the slower one.”
In this situation, the team looked into triplets of adjoining droplets arranged in a triangle, so each droplet touched its two neighbours. Chemical fronts can propagate here in many ways – droplets may oscillate simultaneously in anti-phase, two droplets can oscillate simultaneously and force oscillations in the third, and so on. The team were most interested in rotational modes, in which the chemical fronts passed from droplet to droplet in a 1-2-3 sequence or in the opposite direction (3-2-1).
A droplet in which the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction proceeds excites rapidly, but it takes much longer for it to return to its initial state and only then can become excited again. So if in the 1-2-3 mode the excitation were to reach droplet three too quickly, it would not get through to droplet one to initiate a new cycle, because droplet one would not have enough time to ‘rest.’ As a result, the rotational mode would disappear. IPC PAS researchers were only interested in rotational modes capable of multiple repetitions of the cycle of excitations. They had an added advantage: The chemical fronts circulating between the droplets resemble a spiral wave, and waves of this type are characterized by increased stability.
Experiments showed that both of the studied rotational modes are stable, and if a system enters one of them, it remains until the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction ceases. It was also proved that by correctly selecting the time and length of illumination of appropriate droplets, the direction of rotation of the excitations can be changed. The triplet droplet system, with multiple chemical fronts, was thus capable of permanently storing one of two logic states.
“In fact, our chemical bit has a slightly greater potential than the classical bit. The rotational modes we used to record states zero and one had the shortest oscillation periods of 18.7 and 19.5 seconds, respectively. So if the system oscillated any slower, we could talk about an additional third logic state,” commented Dr. Gizynski, and notes that this third state could be used, for example, to verify the correctness of the record.
The research on memory made up of oscillating droplets was basic in nature and served only to demonstrate that stable storage of information using chemical reactions is possible. The newly formed memory reactions were only responsible for storing information, while its recording and reading required physical methods. It will likely be many years before a fully functioning chemical memory can be built as part of a future chemical computer.