There is an increasing amount of interest in creating drugs that improve cognition and intelligence, and their use is on the rise.


The use of drugs by people hoping to boost mental performance is rising worldwide, finds the largest ever study of the trend. In a survey of tens of thousands of people, 14% reported using stimulants at least once in the preceding 12 months in 2017, up from 5% in 2015.


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The non-medical use of substances, which are often dubbed smart drugs, to increase memory or concentration is known as Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement (PCE), and it rose in all 15 nations included in the survey. The study looked at prescription medications such as Adderall and Ritalin — prescribed medically to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as the sleep-disorder medication Modafinil and illegal stimulants such as Cocaine.

The work, which was published in the International Journal of Drug Policy, is based on the Global Drug Survey – an annual, anonymous online questionnaire about drug use worldwide. The survey had 79,640 respondents in 2015 and 29,758 in 2017.

US respondents reported the highest rate of use – in 2017, nearly 30% said they had used drugs for PCE at least once in the preceding 12 months, up from 20% in 2015. But the largest increases were in Europe. Use in France rose from 3% in 2015 to 16% in 2017, and from 5% to 23% in the UK. An informal reader survey by Nature in 2008 found that one in five respondents had used drugs to boost concentration or memory.


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The latest analysis is impressive in its size, says Barbara Sahakian, a neuroscientist at the University of Cambridge, UK, who was not involved in the work. There is an increasing ‘lifestyle use’ of cognitive enhancing drugs by healthy people, which raises ethical concerns, she says.

Cultural factors, the prevalence of ADHD diagnoses and availability all influence which drugs are used for PCE and the rate of use, says Larissa Maier, a psychologist at the University of California, San Francisco, who led the study.

In the United States, where ADHD diagnoses are high and medication is a common treatment, 22% of respondents said they had used amphetamine-combination drugs such as Adderall for PCE. Those drugs are not approved in the European Union, where Methylphenidate, which is sold under various trade names, including Ritalin, is more commonly used.

The study suggests that the spread of US style practices in ADHD treatment is driving the trend and making drugs more available – countries with higher rates of ADHD diagnoses, such as the US, Canada and Australia, have higher rates of non-medical prescription-drug use for cognitive enhancement.


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“The increased diagnoses of ADHD and their prescription drug use is creating a substantial population of young pharmacologically medicated persons whose underlying problems may very likely be located in their social world,” says Steven Rose, a neuroscientist at the Open University in Milton Keynes, UK.

Nearly half (48%) of people said they obtained the drugs through friends; 10% bought them from a dealer or over the Internet; 6% obtained them from a family member; and just 4% said that they had their own prescriptions.

Debate continues over whether the non-medical use of prescription drugs boosts brain performance, but despite those debates there is increasing interest in the field from many of the big drug companies who see the growing trend as an opportunity to develop Smart Drug products, and increase sales. Data also suggests that some people benefit from certain drugs in specific situations, for example, surgeons using Modafinil – but larger population wide studies report lesser gains, and conflicting results.

Maier notes that respondents to the Global Drug Survey are more likely than the general population to be interested in drug use, which she says could bias results. But she adds that similar rates of non-medical use of smart drugs are seen in studies of the general population, suggesting that the findings are robust.

About author

Matthew Griffin

Matthew Griffin, described as “The Adviser behind the Advisers” and a “Young Kurzweil,” is the founder and CEO of the World Futures Forum and the 311 Institute, a global Futures and Deep Futures consultancy working between the dates of 2020 to 2070, and is an award winning futurist, and author of “Codex of the Future” series. Regularly featured in the global media, including AP, BBC, Bloomberg, CNBC, Discovery, RT, Viacom, and WIRED, Matthew’s ability to identify, track, and explain the impacts of hundreds of revolutionary emerging technologies on global culture, industry and society, is unparalleled. Recognised for the past six years as one of the world’s foremost futurists, innovation and strategy experts Matthew is an international speaker who helps governments, investors, multi-nationals and regulators around the world envision, build and lead an inclusive, sustainable future. A rare talent Matthew’s recent work includes mentoring Lunar XPrize teams, re-envisioning global education and training with the G20, and helping the world’s largest organisations envision and ideate the future of their products and services, industries, and countries. Matthew's clients include three Prime Ministers and several governments, including the G7, Accenture, Aon, Bain & Co, BCG, Credit Suisse, Dell EMC, Dentons, Deloitte, E&Y, GEMS, Huawei, JPMorgan Chase, KPMG, Lego, McKinsey, PWC, Qualcomm, SAP, Samsung, Sopra Steria, T-Mobile, and many more.

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